A Wavelet-Predominant Algorithm Can Evaluate Quality of THz Security Image and Identify Its Usability
This paper presents an aggregate wavelet-predominant algorithm to measure the distortions in THz security images. The algorithm integrates a spectral-based sharpness estimator, a noise estimator derived alpha-stable model and an overall viewing experience estimator based on free-energy principle. Among them, the greater weight is assigned to the spectral-based sharpness estimator considering that the main quality factor in THz security image is sharpness. To verify the feasibility of the proposed metric, we construct the THz security image dataset including a total of 181 THz security images, and each image has the mean opinion score (MOS) collected via subjective quality evaluation experiment. Quantitative experimental results on the constructed THz security image dataset show that the aggregate wavelet-predominant estimator produces the promising overall performance for the estimation of MOS values, with PLCC, SROCC, and RMSE of 0.900, 0.873, and 0.386, respectively. This performance is superior to other opinion-unaware approaches, viz., FISBLIM, SISBLIM, NIQE, CPBD, SINE, S3, FISH, and noise estimator. The determination coefficient (R²) of linear regression between reference and predicted MOSs is 0.81. The result of Bland-Altman analysis further validates that the aggregate wavelet-predominant estimator can substitute for the subjective IQA of THz security image, with approximately 94.5% of data points locating within the limits of agreement. For usability identification, the wavelet-predominant estimator gives the satisfactory results, with accuracy, precision, recall rate, and false positive rate of 84.0%, 79.8%, 95.0%, and 29.6%, respectively. Furthermore, the potential application perspectives of the proposed metric can refer to commercial applications (guarantee THz security images of good quality) and scientific researches (assist in software development for THz security image analysis).